Insulating paint is one of the key factors that determine the technical and economic indicators of motors and electrical appliances.
One of the important technical and economical indicators of the motor is the mass-to-power ratio, ie kg/kw. Decreasing the ratio has important significance for the motor. According to reports, from 1900 to 1967, the mass of a 1hp (0.75kW) motor was reduced from 40kg to 10kg, and it has now been reduced to a level of 6kg/kW. An important reason for this change is the use of highly heat-resistant insulating materials. Reducing the kg/kW value can save a lot of metal materials and reduce motor costs. If an A-class (105°C) motor is insulated with H-grade (180°C), the volume can be reduced by 30% to 50%, saving 20% of copper, 30% to 50% of silicon steel, and 25% of cast iron. Of course, using the same type of machine, with a higher temperature index insulation material, can increase power or extend the life of the motor. From the perspective of the cost of electrical and electronic products, the cost of insulating materials accounts for about half, which explains the position and role of insulating materials in the motor and electrical appliance industry, and gradually develops toward the direction of intelligence.
The role of high-temperature insulation paint is to isolate the live parts with different potentials in electrical equipment. Therefore, the insulation material should first have a high insulation resistance and compressive strength, and can avoid accidents such as electric leakage and breakdown. Secondly, the heat-resisting performance is better, and aging and deterioration are avoided due to long-term overheating; in addition, good thermal conductivity, moisture resistance, lightning resistance, high mechanical strength, and convenient process processing are also required. According to the above requirements, the performance indexes of commonly used insulating materials include dielectric strength, tensile strength, specific gravity, and expansion coefficient.
Insulating paints commonly used by electricians are classified into inorganic insulating materials, organic insulating materials and mixed insulating materials according to their chemical properties. Commonly used inorganic insulating materials are: mica, asbestos, marble, porcelain, glass, sulfur, etc., mainly used as windings for motors, electrical appliances, switches, and insulators. Organic insulating materials include: shellac, resin, rubber, cotton yarn, paper, hemp, rayon, etc. Most of them are used to make insulating paints, covered insulation of winding wires, etc. The mixed insulating material is a variety of molded insulating materials made of the above two kinds of materials and used as a base and a shell of an electrical appliance.
At present, according to the thermal stability during the use, the insulating paint materials in China are divided into seven grades from low to high: Y grade (90%), A grade (105°C), E grade (120°C), grade B. (130°C), Grade F (155oC), Grade H (180°C) and Grade C (180°C or more). In general, Class H and Class C insulating paints generally use silicone resin, polyimide resin, polydiphenyl ether resin, etc. as a film base material. With the advancement of science and technology, electrical products are developing in the direction of small size, light weight, high efficiency, large capacity, simulation, and intelligence. At the same time, with the development of human activities from the ocean to the space of the universe, the environment used by electrical appliances is diverse. As a result, the use conditions of the insulating material and the use environment are diversified. People have higher and higher requirements for the grade of electrical insulating coatings. Traditional silicone insulating paints have the disadvantages of low adhesion, poor adhesion, drying and drying.
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