There are many types of insulation materials, which can be divided into three categories: gas, liquid, and solid.
Commonly used gas-insulating materials are air, nitrogen, sulfur hexafluoride insulated PC film, and the like.
Liquid insulation materials include mineral insulation oils, synthetic insulation oils (silicone oil, dodecylbenzene, polyisobutylene, isopropylbiphenyl, diarylethane, etc.).
Solid insulation materials can be divided into organic and inorganic categories.
Organic solid insulating materials include insulating paints, insulating glues, insulating papers, insulating fiber products, plastics, rubbers, lacquer paint tubes and insulating impregnated fiber products, electrical films, composite products and adhesive tapes, electrician laminated products, and the like.
Inorganic solid insulating materials mainly include mica, glass, ceramics and their products.
In contrast, the variety of solid insulation materials is also the most important. Different electrical equipment requirements on the performance of insulating materials have their own emphasis. Insulation materials for high-voltage electrical devices such as high-voltage motors, high-voltage cables, etc. require high breakdown strength and low dielectric loss. Low-voltage electrical appliances are mainly required for mechanical strength, elongation at break, and heat-resistant grades. The macroscopic properties of insulating materials such as electrical properties, thermal properties, mechanical properties, chemical resistance, weather resistance, and corrosion resistance are closely related to its chemical composition and molecular structure.
Inorganic solid insulation materials are mainly composed of silicon, boron and various metal oxides, mainly ionic structure, the main characteristics of high heat resistance, the working temperature is generally greater than 180 °C, good stability, resistance to atmospheric aging, resistance Chemical properties and long-term aging performance under the effect of an electric field; but high brittleness, low impact strength, high pressure and low tensile strength; poor processability. Organic materials are generally polymers with an average molecular weight between 104 and 106, and their heat resistance is generally lower than that of inorganic materials. Materials containing aromatic rings, heterocyclics, and silicon, titanium, and fluorine are more heat resistant than general linear polymer materials. The important factors affecting the dielectric properties of insulating materials are the polarity of the molecules and the content of polar components. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of polar materials are higher than those of non-polar materials, and it is easy to adsorb impurity ions to increase the conductance and reduce its dielectric properties. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to cleaning and prevent contamination during the manufacturing of insulating materials. Dielectrics for capacitors require high dielectric constants to improve their specific characteristics.
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