“Insulating materials” have been widely used in many fields in today’s society. And how many people know when it was used by people in production?
Reveal the history of the development of insulating materials
The earliest used insulation materials were cotton cloth, silk, mica, rubber and other natural products. At the beginning of the 20th century, industrial synthetic plastic phenolic resins were first introduced, with good electrical properties and high heat resistance. Afterwards, urea-formaldehyde resin and alkyd resin with better properties have appeared one after another. The emergence of synthetic insulating oil of trichlorobiphenyl has caused a leap in the specific characteristics of power capacitors (but has been discontinued due to harmful human health). In the same period, sulfur hexafluoride was also synthesized.
Since the 30’s, synthetic insulation materials have been rapidly developed. They mainly include acetal resin, chloroprene rubber, polyvinyl chloride, styrene butadiene rubber, polyamide, melamine, polyethylene, and PTFE, which is known as the plastic king. Wait. The emergence of these synthetic materials has played a major role in the development of electrical technology. For example, acetal enameled wires are used in motors to increase the operating temperature and reliability, and the size and weight of motors are greatly reduced. The successful development of glass fibers and their braids and the synthesis of organic silicone resins have added H-class heat resistance to motor insulation.
After the 1940s unsaturated polyesters and epoxy resins came into being. The emergence of powder mica tape frees people from the dilemma of lack of film mica resources.
Since the 1950s, synthetic resin-based new materials have been widely used, such as unsaturated polyester and epoxy insulating adhesives for impregnation of high-voltage motor coils. Polyester series products are used in motor slot lining insulation, enameled wire and impregnated lacquer, and E-class and B-class low-voltage motor insulation is developed, which further reduces the volume and weight of the motor. Sulfur hexafluoride has been used in high-voltage electrical appliances and has led to the development of large-capacity miniaturization. The air insulation of the circuit breaker and the oil and paper insulation of the transformer were partially replaced by sulfur hexafluoride.
In the 1960s, heat-resistant resins containing heterocyclic rings and aromatic rings were greatly developed, such as polyimides, polyarylamides, polyarylsulfones, polyphenylene sulfide, and other materials that are class H and higher heat-resistant grades. The synthesis of these heat-resistant materials creates favorable conditions for the future development of Class F and Class H motors. Polypropylene films were also successfully used for power capacitors during this period.
Since the 1970s, there has been relatively little research and development of new materials, and this period is mainly to modify various existing materials and expand the scope of application. The mineral insulating oil is refined with new methods to reduce its loss; epoxy mica insulation has made many improvements in improving its mechanical properties and achieving no air gap to improve its electrical properties. The power capacitor transitions from a paper film composite structure to a full film structure. The 1000-kilovolt UHV power cable began research to replace traditional natural fiber paper with synthetic paper insulation. Pollution-free insulating materials have also developed rapidly since the 1970s, such as the use of non-toxic medium isopropyl biphenyls, ester oils to replace toxic medium chlorinated biphenyls, and the expansion of solvent-free paints. With the popularity of household appliances, the fire of their insulating materials has caused major fire accidents. Therefore, the research on flame-retardant materials has attracted attention.
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