What are the environmental factors that lead to aging of insulating materials
Dielectric is very important for the aging of electrical insulation material. Due to the different external environment, it may affect the performance of the dielectric, which leads to the performance degradation of the insulating material, that is, the aging of insulation material. Aging is generally divided into physical aging and chemical aging. Here are the environmental factors leading to aging of insulation materials.
Because of the variety and complexity of the environmental factors, the proportion of insulation accidents is the largest, and almost every day there is an event of electric shock and death, which is enough to see the effect of the environment on the performance of insulation materials.
1. Moisture is an important factor affecting the performance of insulating materials. The aging process is the absorption of moisture to the insulating layer, which leads to high temperature hydrolysis and the decrease of surface resistance, which is caused by the local overheating and drying of the leakage current, the inhomogeneous resistance of the surface resistance, the charge concentration of the high resistance area, the discharge heating and the breakdown.
2, chemicals affect the aging of electrical materials. Some chemicals such as corrosive gases, drugs such as acids and alkaloids, solvents, refrigerants and oils also affect the aging of insulating materials. The process is: chemical decomposition or hydrolysis, swelling glass, dissolving solvent, immersion, wetting, swelling, oil, bubbling and stripping.
3. Radiation will also accelerate the aging process of insulation materials. For example, gamma rays, X rays, electron irradiation, ultraviolet rays in sunlight and neutron irradiation. The aging process is: absorption of radioactive rays, activation of atoms or molecules, ionization or production of free radicals, breakdown or decomposition of polymer chains.
4. The effect of dust on electrical insulation material. As the dust is mixed with conductive material, hygroscopic material, and deliquescence material, many people may not think that dust is also an important factor affecting the aging of insulating materials. Its aging process is: adsorption of dust, hygroscopic, hydrolysis, non-uniform surface resistance, high resistance, partial charge concentration, discharge heating, breakdown.
5. Microbial corrosion affects the aging of insulation materials. There are also a number of alkyd resin, polyurethane resin and other polymer materials at 20-30 degrees, relative humidity 85%-100%, mold surface growth and other microorganism corrosion also causes the aging of insulation materials. The process is as follows: the surface of the insulating material is long mouldy, the polymer materials are broken down and the chain is broken down. The mechanical and dielectric properties decrease, the hyphae, the surface resistance and the surface discharge voltage drop, and the breakdown of the surface discharge voltage.
Aging caused by environmental erosion is called atmospheric aging, including all kinds of factors that can be encountered in outdoor environment, including oxidation aging, chemical aging, microbial aging, and so on.
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